Income-Driven Repayment Plans: Pros, Cons, and Strategies

Education loans provide funds to pursue higher education, but can also lead to debt. Income-driven repayment (IDR) plans offer a solution that aligns monthly loan payments with the borrower’s income. In this post we are going to discuss IDR plans, their benefits and drawbacks, and strategies for making the most of these plans.

What Are Income-Driven Repayment Plans?

Income-driven repayment plans are designed to make student loan repayment more manageable by making monthly payments based on the borrower’s income and family size. There are four types of IDR plans available for federal student loans:

  1. Income-Based Repayment (IBR) plan
  2. Pay As You Earn (PAYE) plan
  3. Revised Pay As You Earn (REPAYE) plan
  4. Income-Dependent Repayment (ICR) plan

Each plan has its own eligibility criteria, payment calculation methods, and forgiveness terms.

Income-Driven Repayment Plans: eligibility criteria, payment calculation methods, and forgiveness terms

1. Income-Based Repayment (IBR) plan

IBR plans cap monthly payments at 10% or 15% of discretionary income, depending on when loans were first disbursed. Discretionary income is the difference between the borrower’s adjusted gross income and 150% of the poverty guideline for their family size and state of residence.

The IBR plan offers forgiveness after 20 or 25 years of eligible payments. So it’s a viable option for people who need an extended repayment period to stay financially stable.

2. Pay As You Earn (PAYE) Plan

The PAYE plan limits monthly payments to 10% of discretionary income, but no more than the amount paid under the 10-year Standard Repayment Plan. To qualify, borrowers must have taken out their first federal student loan after October 1, 2007, and received a disbursement of a Direct Loan on or after October 1, 2011.

The PAYE plan offers forgiveness after 20 years of qualifying payments, and its low repayment limits can ease financial pressure for recent graduates with low incomes.

3. Revised Pay As You Earn (REPAYE) Plan

REPAYE also sets payments at 10% of discretionary income, but includes all Direct Loan borrowers, regardless of when the loan was taken out. Unlike PAYE and IBR, REPAYE does not limit payments to the 10-year Standard Repayment Plan amount. It offers forgiveness after 20 years for undergraduate loans and after 25 years for graduate loans.

4. Income-Driven Repayment (ICR) Plans

The ICR plan calculates payments as 20% of discretionary income or the amount the borrower would pay under a 12-year fixed repayment plan, adjusted for income, whichever is less. ICR is the only IDR plan available to Parent PLUS loan borrowers, provided the loans are consolidated into a Direct Consolidation loan.

Benefits of Income-Driven Repayment Plans

Benefits of Income-Driven Repayment Plans

1. Affordable Payments

IDR plans ensure that loan payments are based on borrowers’ ability to pay, reducing the risk of default. For example, a borrower earning $30,000 a year with a family of four may pay significantly less under an IDR plan than under a standard repayment plan.

2. Loan Forgiveness

IDR plans offer loan forgiveness after 20 or 25 years of qualified payments. This can be particularly beneficial for borrowers who have large loan balances relative to their income. After the repayment period, any remaining loan balance is forgiven, although it may be considered taxable income.

3. Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) Eligibility

Borrowers working in qualified public service jobs on IDR plans may be eligible for public service loan forgiveness after 10 years of qualified payments. This can significantly reduce the overall repayment tenure and amount.

4. Flexibility

IDR plans adjust with changes in income and family size, providing a safety net for borrowers experiencing financial hardship. If income decreases or family size increases, monthly payments may decrease accordingly.

Check: Education Loans for Multiple Degrees

Disadvantages of Income-Driven Repayment Plans

Disadvantages of IDR Plans

1. Extended Repayment Period

Lower monthly payments may be beneficial in the short term, but they do extend the repayment period. For example, a borrower on a 20-year repayment plan may owe more interest than a 10-year standard plan.

2. Potential Tax Liability

Any remaining loan balance forgiven under IDR plans may be considered taxable income. This means borrowers could face a significant tax bill the year their loans are forgiven. For example, a borrower with $50,000 forgiven may have to pay taxes on that amount, depending on their tax bracket.

3. Annual Recertification Requirement

Borrowers must recertify their income and family size annually. Failure to do so may require them to switch to a standard repayment plan, which could increase monthly payments. This process requires careful record keeping and timely document submission.

4. Interest Capitalization

Unpaid interest is capitalized under certain conditions, such as failing to recertify income or losing eligibility for the plan. Capitalization adds the unpaid interest to the loan principal, increasing the amount by which interest is calculated in the future.

Research and Data on Income-Driven Repayment Plans

Research and Data on Income-Driven Repayment Plans

Effectiveness of IDR Plans

A study conducted by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) found that IDR plans significantly reduce the likelihood of default for borrowers struggling with high debt-to-income ratios. Borrowers in IDR plans were less likely to default than those in standard repayment plans.

Enrollment Trends

According to the U.S. Department of Education, by 2023, more than 8 million borrowers were enrolled in IDR plans, a substantial increase from previous years. This trend indicates the growing awareness and use of these plans among borrowers.

Case Study: Borrower Success Story

Borrower Profile

Mary Johnson, a social worker with a master’s degree, had a federal student loan balance of $70,000. Her annual income was $40,000, and she was struggling to make the $800 monthly payment under the standard repayment plan.

Enrolling in the PAYE Plan

Mary enrolled in the PAYE plan, which reduced her monthly payment to $150. Over the next ten years, she made consistent payments while working in an eligible public service job.


After making payments for 10 years and maintaining her public service job, Mary qualified for public service loan forgiveness, which caused her $40,000 loan balance to be forgiven. This reduced her financial burden and helped her focus on other financial goals.

Strategies to maximize benefits of IDR plans

Strategies to maximize benefits of IDR plans

1. Choose the right plan

You should compare different plans based on your income, family size, and loan balance. Online calculators provided by the U.S. Department of Education can help estimate payments under each plan.

2. Explore loan forgiveness options

You should explore eligibility for public service loan forgiveness (PSLF) if you are working in public service jobs. Ensuring that payments are made on time and are employment-eligible can maximize the benefits of both PSLF and IDR plans.

3. Maintain accurate records

Keep detailed records of income, family size, and employment. You should set reminders for recertification deadlines to avoid being switched to a less favorable repayment plan.

4. Monitor changes in income

IDR plans are designed to adjust with changes in income. You must promptly report significant changes in your income or family size to benefit from potential payment reductions.

5. Plan for potential tax implications

Borrowers should be aware of the tax liability associated with loan forgiveness under IDR plans. Consulting a tax advisor and setting aside funds can help manage this financial impact.

6. Use financial counseling services

Many colleges and universities offer financial counseling services for alumni. These services can provide individualized advice on managing student loans.

7. Consider extra payments

Making extra payments toward the principal balance can reduce the total interest paid and shorten the repayment period. This strategy can be effective for borrowers whose income increases over time.


Income-driven repayment plans provide a valuable tool for managing student loan debt. These plans offer benefits including affordable payments and loan forgiveness, but they also have some drawbacks, such as extended repayment periods and tax liabilities. We have explained the pros and cons of IDR plans and strategies above.

Understanding Standard Repayment Plans

The Standard Repayment Plan is the default option for federal student loans. Here’s what you should know about it:

  • Fixed monthly payments: Under the Standard Repayment Plan, you make fixed monthly payments over a period of 10 years.
  • Predictability: Since payments are fixed, they’re easier to budget. You know exactly how much you’ll pay each month.
  • Total costs: This plan typically results in lower total interest costs because you’re repaying the loan over a shorter period of time.
  • Loan forgiveness: Generally, loans under the Standard Repayment Plan are not eligible for loan forgiveness programs.


  • Predictable monthly payments make it easier to budget.
  • Lower total interest costs over the life of the loan.
  • Faster path to becoming debt-free.


  • High monthly payments may be challenging for recent graduates or people with low incomes.
  • No flexibility to adjust payments based on changes in income.

Income-Driven Repayment vs. Standard Repayment Plans:

To determine which plan is right for you, consider the following factors:

1. Monthly payment amount:

  • If your income is low or unstable, an IDR plan may provide a more manageable monthly payment.
  • If your income is high and you can afford larger payments, the standard repayment plan may be beneficial because it results in paying less interest over time.

2. Total interest paid:

  • Standard repayment plans result in lower total interest costs due to shorter repayment periods.
  • IDR plans with extended repayment periods result in more total interest paid.

3. Loan forgiveness:

  • Standard repayment plans do not offer loan forgiveness.
  • IDR plans offer loan forgiveness after 20-25 years, which can be a significant benefit if you have a large loan balance and low income.

4. Financial stability:

  • The Standard Repayment plan is ideal if you have steady employment and can handle higher monthly payments.
  • IDR plans are better for those whose income fluctuates or who want to pursue a career in public service, where loan forgiveness may be an option.

5. Long-term financial goals:

  • If becoming debt-free as soon as possible is a priority, the Standard Repayment plan is the right choice.
  • If you need a lower payment to manage other financial goals like saving for a home or retirement, an IDR plan is more suitable.

Real-life scenarios

Scenario 1: High-income earner

Alex graduated with $50,000 in student loans and landed a well-paying job with a starting salary of $70,000. Alex can easily afford the higher monthly payment and prefers to become debt-free as soon as possible. The Standard Repayment plan would be a suitable option for Alex because of its predictable payments and low total interest cost.

Scenario 2: Unstable Income

Taylor is a freelancer whose income is unpredictable. Some months are financially successful, while others are not. An IDR plan would allow Taylor to adjust payments according to changes in income, providing a safety net during low-income periods.

Scenario 3: Public Servant

Jamie works for a nonprofit organization at a modest salary of $35,000. Jamie has $60,000 in student loans. An IDR plan, specifically PAYE or IBR, would reduce Jamie’s monthly payments, making them more affordable. Additionally, Jamie may be eligible for public service loan forgiveness after making qualifying payments for 10 years.

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